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The Garden was groomed by my Grandmother for decades, which for her means that the grass and the hedge are regularly trimmed, the flowerbed is filled with cultured ornamental plants where every withered leaf is removed, every “weed” and “vermin” is annihilated and for this and for fertilization chemical substances are used gladly.

My goal is to introduce more biodiversity and a more natural eco-system in the garden. Therefore I bank on local species instead of non-indigenous species, wild species instead of cultured ones, more nectar sources and pollinators and the support for (locally) endangered species.

I start by listing all species I can find in the garden and learning about them. Then I will see which ones I want to nurture, which ones I might want to replace and which ones I want to introduce.

When I say species I mean family, genus, species or whatever – depending on how exactly I can identify living beings in the garden.


Table of contents:



Present Flora

Identified so far: 60

trees and bushes:

  • silver birches
  • Austrian pine
  • spruce
  • cherry
  • lilac
  • jasmine
  • rhododendron
  • wild privet

wild plants:

  • bellflower
  • common nettle
  • blackberries
  • strawberries
  • elder
  • fern
  • spurge
  • clover
    • white clover
    • red clover
    • common bird's-foot trefoil
  • dandelion
  • moss
  • daisies
  • cornflowers
  • white bedstraw

ornamental flowers:

  • roses
  • peonies
  • iris
  • daylily
  • hydrangea
  • pelargoniums
  • saw palmetto
  • angel's trumpet
  • asparagus fern
  • natal lily
  • Mexican marigold
  • grass
  • garden phlox
  • gerbera
  • bear's breeches
  • Cotoneaster

climbing plants:

  • lichen
  • ivy
  • wild wine
  • bindweed

pond plants:

  • horsetail
  • ornamental grass
  • water lily
  • algae

herbs and crops

  • lavender
  • aloe vera
  • chives
  • basil
  • rosemary
  • thyme
  • sage
  • majoram
  • melissa

spring flowers:

  • spring snowflake
  • snowdrop
  • samson
  • crocus
  • violet



Present Fauna

identified so far: 47

in the air:

in the pond:

  • fish
  • newts
  • water snails
  • frogs
  • sandpipers

on the ground:

  • ants
  • snails
  • grasshopper
  • bugs
  • beetles
  • spiders
  • squirrels
  • cats
  • dogs
  • humans

in the ground:

  • worms
    • earthworms



Some Species In Detail

Silver Birch

(Betula pendula)

Natural habitat and threat level:

Europe, Northern America, Asia

Flowering period:

April – May

Pros and Cons:

  • Silver birches are pioneer plants, but in the garden that doesn't make a difference
  • about 500 domestic species live on the silver birch, 133 of which are specialized on it. 105 butterfly and moth species lay their eggs on the silver birch

Planned actions:

  • the bigger of the two silver birches in the garden looks like it may die soon, so I'll inform myself about what I can do to save it
  • if it can't be saved the silver birch will probably be replaced by another
  • the second one is a dwarf breed and is probably not suitable for reproduction


Mexican Marigold

(Tagetes erecta)

Natural habitat and threat level:

Mexican marigold is native to Mexico, Guatemala and Peru's Ucayali region. In Central Europe they are neophytes and mostly used as ornamental plants. In our garden Mexican marigolds were planted by my grandmother and they are common, especially in pots.

Pros and Cons:

Plants of the genus tagetes are preferred by snails. In agriculture they are sometimes used to draw snails away from other plants, but I immagine large numbers in flower gardens lead to increased numbers of annoying snails like the Spansih slug.

Planned actions:

  • no longer actively plant Mexican marigold
  • let snails eat existing plants


Common Ivy

(Hedera helix)

Natural habitat and threat level:

Europe

Outside of Europe common ivy is often considered invasive and is being combated.

It is common and not endangered.

In our garden there is not a lot of ivy.

flowering period:

September – October

Pros and Cons:

  • important nectar source in late summer
  • blossoms and fruits attract many useful creatures
  • e.g. it is liked by the endangered red admiral
  • densely covered areas like façades offer protection and habitat for many animals
  • poisonous to humans
  • filters the air from numerous toxins
  • usually doesn't do harm to any other plants even if it could completely overrun them
  • can however damage small trees
  • convenient for greening façades
    • can protect intact façades from weather- or heat-damage
    • can increase pre-existing damage on façades

Planned actions:

  • try greening the façade with Ivy
  • all windows should then get fly screens so the animals stay outside


True Lavender

(Lavandula angustifolia, Lavandula officinalis, Lavandula vera)

Natural habitat and threat level:

Originally from the mediterranian coast in Austria it rarely occurrs in the wild.

Lavender likes dry, rocky slopes with soil poor in nutriants.

Natural enemies are Resseliella lavandulae, Arima marginata, Eulia polita, Eucaria elegans, Aphis spp, Hyalesthes obsoletus.

All lavender in our garden was planted. One bush is quite large and it's surely possible to multiply it through cutting.

flowering period:

In our garden the lavender was in full bloom from June 14th to Juli 11th 2019 and in that time there were multiple bees and other animals visiting at any sunny moment.

Pros and Cons:

  • beloved nectar source for bees and butterflies, among others the highly endangered scarce swallowtail
  • perennial

Planned actions:

  • more lavender
  • more natural habitat (it's currently on rich-soil)


Western Honeybee

(Apis mellifera)

Natural habitat and threat level:

worldwide except for polar regions

According to Wikipedia there is no scientific evidence for the rumored worldwide bee death, on the other hand bee populations in Europe are reported as dropping since 1970 and dropping fast since 2007. Also it is undisputed that some bee species are endangered.

I couldn't find and Info about whether the Western Honeybee is endangered or protected in Vienna, but it is definitely nurtured.

In our garden in the summer there are a lot of honeybees looking for nectar. I recently found a hole in the wall where one bee entered probably for resting, but there is no bee hive living on our property and as far as I know also nowhere nearby.

Food:

Bees eat nectar and pollen of many different nectar plants. Especially strong nectar producers are listed below:

  • rapeseed
  • lacy phacelia
  • fagopyrum
  • black locust
  • lime tree
  • European crab apple as well as other fruit trees of the rosaceae family
  • southern globethistle
  • common thyme
  • true lavender
  • sage
  • yellow sweet clover
  • starflower
  • hyssop
  • common sainfoin
  • willows and birch trees are early pollen-producers
  • ivy is a late pollen-producer

period:

Western Honeybees fly whenever there are nectar sources blooming and the temperatures fit. Ideal are temperatures between 22 and 25 °C. At temperatures under 10 or above 38 °C the bees are inactive.

Pros and cons:

  • probably the most important pollinators of them all
  • Einstein already supposedly said that if bees die humans will die next
  • because of the fear of bee extinction artificial bees (drones) are being invented and in some companies people are already employed to manually pollinate crops.

Plannet actions:

  • do more research to know what bee-hostile behavior should be avoided
  • plant more nectar sources like lacy phacelia or fagopyrum
  • get an insect hotel to give home to larva of solitary honeybees, wild bees and other insects
  • consider going into beekeeping, but only with enough knowledge so as not to accidentially breed pathogens like the Varroa mite
  • if I go into beekeeping I won't do it for the honey as that doesn't comply with the vegan principle


Common Blue

(Polyommatus icarus)

Natural habitat and threat level:

Common blues are native to Europe, North-Africa and Asia.

Almost all lycaenidae species in Central Europe are threatened. Of those the common blue is the least threatened. In Vienna it is protected while the chequered blue, another species of the lycaenidae genus is protected with priority¹.

Many lycaenidae depend on certain ant species, some of which are also endangered.

In our garden the common blue was sighted only a handful of times in 2019 so far.

Food:

imagines:

  • Lotus corniculatus

caterpillars:

  • Medicago falcata
  • Medicago lupulina
  • Medicago sativa
  • Trifolium dubium
  • Trifolium arvense
  • Trifolium repens
  • Lotus corniculatus
  • Lotus uliginosus
  • Hippocrepis comosa
  • Securigera varia
  • Ononis spinosa
  • Ononis repens

flight period:

end of April – September

Planned actions:

  • leave more clover in the meadow / less mowing
  • introduce more different clover types


Small and Large White

(Pieris rapae, Pieris brassicae)

Natural habitat and threat level:

Pieridae are common almost all over the world except for the antartica. Most species are native to tropical Africa and Asia. In Vienna all butterflies are protected¹.

Small and large white are not only common in Europe, but also count as vermin. As pollinators they are not of significance.

A natural enemy and commonly used as pest control is the white butterfly parasite (Cotesia glomerata).

Small whites are the most common butterflies in our garden, closely before Hungarian gliders. In the immediate and wider surroundings the gap is much bigger and small whites for sure make up more than 50% of all butterflies.

Food:

The caterpillars prefer to eat vegetables and other crops.

flight period:

March- end of October

Planned actions:

  • specific measures that give an edge to other butterfly species are probably a good idea in the name of bio-diversity


Painted Lady

(Vanessa cardui, Cynthia cardui)

Natural habitat and threat level:

Europe, North-Africa, Asia, North-America and Australia.

In Vienna the painted lady, like all butterflies is protected¹, in our garden it is quite common.

Food:

imagines:

  • thistle
  • butterfly-bush (Buddleja davidii)

caterpillars (preferred):

Cirsium vulgare, Cirsium oleraceum, Carduus spec., Onopordum acanthium

caterpillars (also):

Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Vitaceae, Malvaceae, Brassicaceae and Boraginaceae.

flight period:

May – Juli

Planned actions:

  • since the painted lady is so common there are no immediate plans needed


Hungarian Glider

(Neptis rivularis)

Natural habitat and threat level:

Central Europe

In Vienna it is priority protected¹.

Food:

Imagines:

  • wet ground
  • excrements

Caterpillars:

Flight period:

June – July

Planned actions:


Marbled White

(Melanargia galathea)

Natural habitat and threat level:

South-, Central- and North-Europe and North-Asia.

In Central Europe marbled white is common, in other areas diminishing. In Vienna, like all butterflies it is protected¹ and it's quite common in our garden.

Food:

Imagines:

Centaurea, Scabiosa, Cirsium, Carduus

Caterpillars:

Brachypodium pinnatum, Bromus erectus, Poa pratensis, Agrostis capillaris, Dactylis glomerata, Molinia caerulea, Helictotrichon pubescens, Festuca, Brachypodium

flight period:

June to August

Planned action:

  • no plans were made yet


Scarce Swallowtail

(Iphiclides podalirius)

Natural habitat and threat level:

Europe and Asia

Scarce swallowtails disappeared in many regions in the last years and are sensitive bioindicators.

In Austria it is highly endangered, only in Lower Austria it is not protected, but in Vorarlberg it is extinct.

In Vienna the scarce swallowtail is protected with priority¹. In our garden so far only one specimen with one lightly bruised wing was seen in 2019. It hung around and sucked on the lavender for hours.

Food:

Imagines:

Caterpillars:

  • Crataegus spec.
  • Prunus spinosa
  • Prunus mahaleb
  • Prunus armeniaca
  • Prunus persica
  • Prunus dulcis

flight period:

May – July

Planned actions:

  • more Lavender
  • introduce some dame's rocket (Hesperis matronalis)


Red Admiral

(Vanessa atalanta, Pyrameis atalanta)

CC-by-SA 4.0: Christian Fischer

Natural habitat and threat level:

Red admirals are migrant butterflies and can be found all over the world. In Vienna they are protected¹.

In our garden so far I only saw one red admiral in 2019. It was flying through the garden and didn't sit down, which is why there is no self-taken picture of it yet.

Food:

Imagines:

Caterpillars:

  • common nettle (Urtica dioica)

flight period:

June – October

Planned actions:


Common Brimstone

(Gonepteryx rhamni)

CC-by-SA 4.0: Arieswings

Natural habitat and threat level:

Eurasia and Northwest Africa

According to Wikipedia the common brimstone is no candidate for the red list of endangered species, even if “alledgedly” it has become more rare.

In our garden and the wider surroundings it definitely has gotten a lot rarer. Some years ago (can't say how many exactly) it was the most common butterfly, together with or instead of other Pieridae species. In 2019 I have only seen one individual so far.

In Vienna, like every butterfly it is protected¹.

Food:

Imagines:

  • Centaurea jacea
  • Knautia arvensis
  • Succisa pratensis, Scabiosa succisa L.
  • Tussilago farfara
  • many other nectar sources

Caterpillars:

  • Rhamnus frangula, Frangula alnus
  • Rhamnus cathartica
  • other Rhamnus and Rhamnaceae species

Flight period:

March – late Autumn

Planned actions:

  • since we don't plan to plant any bushes in the garden there are also no plans to plant any food sources for the caterpillars


Speckled Wood

(Pararge aegeria)

Natural habitat and threat level:

Central Europe and Northern Africa

In Vienna, like every butterfly it is protected¹.

Food:

Imagines:

  • Tree-fluids
  • ripe fruits
  • puddle water

caterpillars:

  • Carex sylvatica
  • Festuca gigantea
  • Poa nemoralis
  • Holcus lanatus
  • Arrhenatherum elatius
  • Brachypodium pinnatum
  • Molinia caerulea
  • Calamagrostis epigeios

Flight period:

April – September

Panned actions:

  • no plans were made yet


European Peacock

(Aglais io, Inachis io, Nymphalis io)

Natural habitat and threat level:

Aurasia

In Vienna, like every butterfly the European peacock is protected¹.

In our garden so far it was only seen while flying through.

Food:

Imagines:

Raupen:

  • common nettle (Urtica dioica)

flight period:

June – October

Planned actions:

  • more common nettle


Small Heath

(Coenonympha pamphilus)

Natural habitat and threat level:

almost all of Europe, Asia, Northern Africa

In Vienna, like every butterfly it is protected¹.

Food:

Imagines:

  • Achillea millefolium
  • Senecio jacobaea

Caterpillars:

  • Festuca ovina
  • Poa pratensis
  • other sweet grass species of these genera:
    • Poa
    • Festuca
    • Agrostis
    • Deschampsia
    • Anthoxanthum
    • Nardus
    • Brachypodium
    • Corynephorus
    • Cynosurus
    • Danthonia

Flight period:

Februar – November

Planned actions:

  • no plans were made yet


Six-spot Burnet

(Zygaena filipendulae)

Natural habitat and threat level:

Europe

In Vienna almost all burnets are protected¹.

Food:

Imagines:

  • ?

Caterpillars:

  • common bird's-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus)
  • coronilla

Flight period:

Juli – August

Planned actions:

  • leave more lotus in the meadow


Jersey Tiger

(Callimorpha quadripunctaria)

Natural habitat and threat level:

Southern and Central Europe

In Vienna it is strictly protected¹.

Food:

Imagines:

Caterpillars:

  • dead-nettles (Lamium)
  • common nettle (Urtica dioica)
  • salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor)
  • viper's bugloss (Echium vulgare)
  • hazel (Corylus)
  • raspberry (Rubus idaeus)
  • blackberry (Rubus fruticosus agg.)
  • meadow sage (Salvia pratensis)
  • Senecio fuchsii

Flight period:

Juli – September

Planned actions:


Spanish Slug

(Arion vulgaris/lusitanicus)

Natural habitat and threat level:

Originally from Europe, now existing all over the world the Spanish slug is not endangered and not protected. In contrary it counts as vermin.

Natural enemies are hedgehogs, birds, reptiles, ground beetles, fireflies and centipedes.

In our garden the Spanish slug is common.

Food:

Spanish slugs prefer vegetables and other crops over wild plants.

Planned actions:

  • Teach granma that slug pellets don't just kill Spanish slugs but also their predators as well as the protected Roman snail. The killing of predators only leads to more Spanish snails.
  • Show her that fostering it's predators has a better effect.
  • Improve habitat for birds and hedgehogs
  • When I take over the garden no more plants the Spanish slug likes a lot will be planted, except maybe for vegetables in a protected raised bed.


Roman Snail

(Helix pomatia)

Natural habitat and threat level:

Central-Europe

Roman snails are strictly protected internationally.

In our garden Roman snails are rather common.

food:

Roman snails feast on weak and withered plant parts and algae. They also need a lot of chalk to build strong shells.

Planned actions:

  • Convince grandma not to use snail poison



Not (yet) present Flora

We want more wild plants in the garden, especially threatened ones or those that are important for endangered animals – maily pollinators. Invasive non-indigenous species should be avoided, even if they have some positive effects



Not (yet) present Fauna

Endangerd domestic species, especially pollinators shoud get a better habitat in our garden. The introduction of vermin on the other hand should be prevented.

Butterflies and moths:



Some Species in Detail

Lacy Phacelia

(Phacelia tanacetifolia)

Natural habitat and threat level:

Originally from America the lacey phacelia exists in Europe as a non-indigenous plant. It is not considered invasive because it is not perennial.

flowering period:

June – October

Pros and Cons:

  • one of the highest yielding nectar sources
  • improves soil quality by drawing nutrients up with it's deep roots
  • attracts many useful species and is therefore often being planted between other plants as pest control
  • is toxic and can cause contact allergies

Planned action:

  • plant some lacey phacelia and test for contact allergies


Meadowsweet

Filipendula ulmaria

GFDL, CC-by-SA 3.0: Frank Vincentz

Natural habitat and threat level:

Central and Northern Europe as well as Central and Northern Asia

Meadowsweet grows on wet, nutrient-rich, slightly sour, sandy or clay soil as well as on bog and in swamps. It likes sunlight or half-shadow

Flowering period:

June – Juli

Pros and Cons:

  • nectar source for numerous pollinators
  • food for the caterpillars of the Hungarian glider which is endangered in Vienna

Planned actions:

  • plant meadowsweet


Goat's Beard

(Aruncus dioicus)

GFDL, CC-by-SA 3.0: Anneli Salo

Natural habitat and threat level:

Temperate region of the northern hemisphere

flowering period:

June – Juli

Pros and cons:

  • nectar source for numerous pollinators, especially bumblebees and butterflies
  • food for the caterpillars of the Hungarian glider which is endangered in Vienna

Planned actions:

  • plant goat's beard


Dame's Rocket

(Hesperis matronalis

CC-by 2.0: Jason Pratt aka FishSpeaker

Natural habitat and threat level:

Europe, Central and Western Asia

Originally coming from mountain regions dame's rocket occurs in the wild in Central Europe for centuries.

Flowering period:

April – June

Pros and Cons:

  • bi- to multiannual
  • nectar source especially for moths but also the strictly protected scarce swallowtail
  • important food source for caterpillars

Planned actions:

  • plant dame's rocket


Summer Lilac

(Buddleja davidii)

GFDL, CC-by-SA 4.0: Mehlauge

Natural habitat and threat level:

Summer lilac comes from China and Tibet and is considered invasive in Central Europe.

Flowering period:

Juli – August

Pros and Cons:

  • nectar source for many butterflies and other pollinators, especially in late summer when not a lot of flowers bloom
  • alledgedly renders the pollinators drunk because of some poison and therefore makes them easy prey for predators
  • invasive
  • all in all, also because summer lilac is not an essential nectar source for any species, domestic plants are to be preferred

Planned actions:

  • don't plant summer lilac


Hemp-Agrimony

(Eupatorium cannabinum)

Natural habitat and threat level:

All of Europe, Western Asia and Northern Africa

Hemp-agrimony likes moist, sunny and nutrient-rich places and in our garden it is planted on exactly such a spot next to the pond.

Flowering period:

Juli – September

Pros and Cons:

Planned actions:

  • care for freshly planted hemp-agrimony well and plant some more from seed-mixes


Chequered Blue

(Scolitantides orion)

GFDL, CC-by-SA 3.0: Olaf Leillinger

Natural habitat and threat level:

The chequered blue is fragmentarily found in Europe and Aisa. In Austria it is extinct in some regions and considered a sensible bio-indicator. In Vienna it is priority protected¹.

Food:

Imagines:

  • many different nectar sources
  • especially white blossoms

caterpillars:

  • preferrs orpine (Sedum telephium/maximum)
  • also eats other plants of the Sedum genus

flight period:

Middle of April – End of August

Planned actions:

  • no plans were made yet


Large Copper

(Lycaena dispar)

GFDL, CC-by-SA 3.0: Rosenzweig

Natural habitat and threat level:

Patchy in Europe

The large copper is highly endangered and priority protected in Vienna¹.

Food:

Imagines:

  • horse mint (Mentha longifolia)
  • Senecio

Caterpillars:

  • great water dock (Rumex hydrolapathum)
  • curly dock (Rumex crispus)
  • Rumex aquaticus

flight period:

June – July

Planned actions:

  • no plans were made yet


Large Tortoiseshell

(Nymphalis polychloros)

GFDL, CC-by-SA 3.0: Algirdas

Natural habitat and threat level:

North Africa, Europe and Asia

In Southern Europe the large tortoiseshell is more common than in Central Europe and it is priority protected in Vienna¹.

Food:

Imagines:

  • preferrs tree-fluids over nectar from blossoms

Caterpillars:

  • goat willow (Salix caprea)
  • aspen (Populus tremula)
  • apple tree (Malus domestica)
  • pear tree (Pyrus communis)
  • other leaf trees

flight period:

June – August

Planned actions:

  • since we don't plan to plant any trees there are no imediate plans to help out the large tortoiseshell


southern Festoon

(Zerynthia polyxena)

GFDL, CC-by-SA 3.0: Jean-Laurent Hentz

Natural habitat and threat level:

Southern to Central Europe and southern Ural region

In Austria the southern festoon only occurs in some regions, in Vienna it is priority protected¹.

Food:

Caterpillars:

  • European birthwort (Aristolochia clematitis)
  • other birthworts (Aristolochia)

Flight period:

March – May

Planned actions:

  • no plans were made yet


Lesser Purple Emperor

(Apatura ilia)

GFDL, CC-by-SA 3.0: Heiko Blaeser

Natural habitat and threat level:

Europe

In Vienna it is priority protected¹.

Food:

Females:

  • Honeydew
  • overripe fruits

Males:

  • excrements
  • cadavers

Caterpillars:

  • Populus tremula
  • Populus alba
  • Populus nigra
  • Populus x canadensis
  • Populus x gileadensis
  • Salix caprea

Flight period:

May – August

Planned actions:

  • let Aphids infest some plants
  • don't remove all excrements and cadavers immediately


Dryad

(Minois dryas)

GFDL, CC-by-SA 3.0: Siga

Natural habitat and threat level:

Eurasia

In Vienna it is priority protected¹.

Food:

Imagines:

Caterpillars:

  • Molinia caerulea
  • Calamagrostis epigeios
  • Bromus erectus
  • other Poaceae = Gramineae

Flight period:

June – September

Planned actions:


Great Banded Grayling

(Brintesia circe)

CC-by-SA 4.0: Didier Descouens

Natural habitat and threat level:

Eurasia

In Vienna it is priority protected¹.

Food:

Imagines:

  • ?

Caterpillars:

  • Bromus erectus
  • Festuca ovina
  • other Poaceae = Gramineae

Flight period:

June – Middle of September

Planned actions:

  • no plans were made yet


Giant Peacock Moth

(Saturnia pyri)

GFDL, CC-by-SA 3.0: Entomolo

Natural habitat and threat level:

South Europe and North Africa

It was first found in Vienna and it lives in Eastern Austria, but gets rarer. In Vienna it is priority protected¹.

Food:

Imagines:

  • ?

Caterpillars:

  • Juglans regia
  • Malus domestica
  • Prunus domestica
  • Castanea sativa
  • Fagus sylvatica
  • Acer pseudoplatanus
  • Corylus avellana

Flight period:

?

Planned actions:

  • no plans were made yet


Eyed Hawk Moth

(Smerinthus ocellata)

CC-by-SA 4.0: Didier Descouens

Natural habitat and threat level:

Europe and Northafrika

In Vienna it is stricktly protected¹.

Food:

Imagines:

  • ?

Caterpillars:

  • Salix viminalis
  • Salix fragilis
  • Salix aurita
  • Salix cinerea
  • Salix caprea
  • other Salix species
  • Populus
  • rarely also fruit trees

Flight period:

Middle of May – Juli

Planned actions:

  • no plans were made yet


Cream-Spot Tiger

(Arctia villica)

CC-by-SA 3.0: Kurt Kulac

Natural habitat and threat level:

Northern Africa, Western and South Europe, Russia and Near East In Austria it appears in warm regions, in Germany it is threatened from extinction.

In Vienna it is strictly protected¹.

Food:

Imagines:

  • ?

Caterpillars:

  • Taraxacum sect. Ruderalia
  • Plantago
  • Lamium
  • Achillea
  • Rubus
  • Fragaria

Flight period:

June – Juli

Planned actions:

  • leave more dandelion


Narrow-bordered Bee Hawk-moth

(Hemaris tityus)

CC-by-SA 3.0: 120

Natural habitat and threat level:

Europe

In Vienna it is strictly protected¹.

Food:

Imagines:

  • Ajuga
  • Glechoma
  • Lychnis
  • Salvia
  • Pulmonaria
  • Knautia

Caterpillars:

  • Succisa pratensis
  • Knautia arvensis
  • Scabiosa
  • Galium
  • Lonicera
  • Symphoricarpos
  • Dipsacus
  • Lychnis

Flight period:

Middle of May – Middle of June

Planned actions:

  • no plans were made yet


Silver-washed Fritillary

(Argynnis paphia)

Natural habitat and threat level:

Europe, Northern Africa, Asia

It is widespread and common and therefore not threatened. In Vienna, like every butterfly it is protected¹.

Food:

Imagines:

  • Rubus sectio Rubus
  • Skabiosa
  • thistles
  • Angelica sylvestris

Caterpillars:

  • Viola odorata
  • Viola reichenbachiana
  • Viola hirta
  • other Viola species
  • Filipendula ulmaria

Flight period:

June – August

Planned actions:

  • nothing is planned yet


Hummingbird Hawk-Moth

(Macroglossum stellatarum)

Natural habitat and threat level:

Northern Africa, Europe, Asia

The hummingbird hawk-moth is widespread and common and therefore not threatened. In Vienna it is not protected¹.

Food:

Imagines:

  • Trifolium
  • Phlox
  • Syringa
  • Fuchsia
  • Jasminum
  • Echium
  • Primula
  • Medicago
  • Buddleja
  • Geranium
  • Nicotiana
  • Viola
  • Verbena
  • Stachys

Caterpillars:

  • Galium verum
  • Galium sylvaticum
  • Galium mollugo
  • Galium aparine
  • Galium odoratum
  • other Galium species
  • Rubia tinctorum
  • Rubiaceae
  • Stellaria
  • Centranthus
  • Epilobium

Flight period:

June – September

Planned actions:

  • nothing is planned yet


Small Skipper

(Thymelicus sylvestris)

Natural habitat:

almost all of Europe + Northern Africa

In Vienna, like every butterfly it is protected¹.

Food:

Imagines:

  • ?

Caterpillars:

  • Holcus lanatus
  • Holcus mollis
  • Phleum pratense
  • Brachypodium sylvaticum

Flight period:

End of June – August

Planned actions:

  • nothing is planned yet



Principles

In the garden we try to follow these principles

Vermin ≠ Vermin

Not every so called vermin has to be tackled. Some 'weed' is even helpful.

Species can be categorized in 4 groups depending on their benefits:

  • Eco-heroes: species that have mainly positive effects on the eco-system
    • e.g. pollinators like bees and butterflies
  • useful species: they bring some benefit to humans
    • e.g. edible plants or ladybugs which can eat up to 10.000 nuisances/vermin in their lifetime
  • nuisances: species that can annoy humans
    • e.g. moths or ants in the house
  • vermin: species that can damage the eco-system
    • e.g. the Varroa mite that to a large extent is responisble for colony collapse disorder (bee death)

Nuisances shouldn't be eradicated, but only kept away from where they are unwanted

Steps to take against nuisances and vermin:

  • block their way to things where you don't want them
    • e.g. fly screens agains nuisances in the house
  • remove, reduce or lock up things that attract them
    • e.g. remove potted plants with plant louses on them from the house to not attract ants
  • attract and nurture natural predators
    • e.g. spray plants with elderberry juice to attract ladybugs that will eat mildew and plant louses
  • use unwanted scents
    • e.g. use geraniums or geraniol to keep away clothes moths
  • avoid poisons as they also kill predators, bait traps as they can attract nuisances and vermin even more as well as any other method that kills or uses chemical substances


Protect Endangered Species

Species that are endangered and belong here should be protected. Non indigenous species are not to be protected, even if they might be endangered elsewhere. Exceptions can be made for species that came here a long time ago or that migrate here because of the climate crisis. Invasive nin-indigenous plants should be considered vermin and therefore removed.

Species can be categorized according to their threat level thusly:

  • priority protected
    • (locally) extinct
    • threatened
  • strictly protected
    • strongly endangered
  • protected
    • endangered
    • potentially endangered
    • regionally endangered
  • not protected
    • not endangered
    • not indigenous
  • to be removed
    • invasive and not indigenous



Planned Actions

Here I'll list all actions derived from research about the species above: